Charles Barry was born on 23 may 1795 in Westminster. In 1817 he went on a trip to India and the East, also visited Greece, Egypt, Syria. Returned to England Barry in 1821, bringing with them a lot of sketches.
His first notable building was the Church. Peter’s in Brighton. It was followed by the Church in honour of the same Apostle in Manchester and the local Athenaeum. Then on draft Barry built the king Edward grammar school in Birmingham.
Creative position was ambivalent. The famous master of Gothic revival in 1830-1832 he builds, the building of the Club. The exterior of the club feels the immediate impact of the architectural image of the famous Florentine Palazzo Pandolfini.
The travel club has long been considered the most beautiful building of its kind in London, until it was surpassed by the beauty of the clubhouse reforms (1837-1840), Barry designed with the latest construction technologies. There even more clearly demonstrated the author was interested in works of the Italian masters of the high Renaissance.
Barry also built a magnificent Bridgewater house for Lord Ellesmere, Trentham and Clifden house for the Duke Sutherlandshire and Strickland Hall for W. Middleton.
The main and the most remarkable construction Barry was danielopolu of Parliament – Palace of Westminster in London, laid April 27, 1840. The old building of the Palace of Westminster burned down in a fire on 16 October 1834. It was necessary to build a new Palace, and in 1835 a competition was announced, under which the projects were made only in the style of Elizabethan times or Gothic revival. The organizers of the competition believed that only these styles can be considered national, in addition, they are reminded of the medieval origins of the parliamentary system. The competition was won by Charles Barry together with the architect and the painter Augustus Pugin, knowledge and credibility, which in the study of Gothic art were especially important for winning the competition. Elaborate asymmetrical plan successfully links the new facilities with the survivors of fire a Large room, take into account their location on the river and proximity to the towers of Westminster Cathedral. The Parliament building became a monument of the Victorian era with its stiffness, the quirks and nostalgia for the past.
The base of the building rises directly from the water, emphasizing the verticality of the niches and Bay Windows, the rhythm of which, according to Barry, a sensation of “equilibrium through the repetition of similar parts.” The basis of the construction are load-bearing walls of brick and stone. Large spans of halls covered with cast-iron beams on cast-iron columns. Floors are made in the form of brick arches resting on iron beams. Such non-combustible construction is usually used in industrial buildings.
Construction materials brought down the river and piled on the waterfront. For stone works were selected limestone and dolomite. These materials are the most resistant to the destructive effects of coal fumes and dust. Urban air in the XIX century was full of smoke and soot.
During the construction of the Parliament used the many technical innovations of mobile cranes, prefabricated scaffolding, concrete mixers and winches driven by steam.
The total length of the three-storey facade is two hundred forty-four meters. The building housed parliamentary institutions, libraries, halls of Committee meetings, buffets behind them are the halls of the meetings of the house of lords and house of Commons. The Eastern facade of Parliament is advanced in the direction of the Thames at 24-30 meters. This part of the building stands on an artificial embankment. First, we built waterproof the jumper of two rows of wooden piles with clay fill. After pumping the water were built the retaining wall and shore terrace.
Exterior walls are covered with the intricate ornament. Pugin managed to achieve harmony and large forms of the decor, created by Gothic designs. As you go up in height, ornamental decorations of the building are getting richer. Especially richly decorated with spires, parapets and towers.
Square the Victoria tower was the highest in the world (102 meters). Veneer stone slabs, cast-iron supports and arched structures of metal and brick provided the fire safety of the tower.
The main tower appeared contrary to the intent of the Barry – designed ventilation engineer. This tower serves as a natural hood for the entire building. The roof covering is of cast-iron plates rests on cast-iron beams laid on the walls. The filtered smoke and heated air are supplied along the heating system from the lower areas at the top and come out through vents on the roof.
In the drawings a horizontal picture frames corner turrets was replaced by a vertical, emphasizing their tendency upward and an expressive silhouette against the sky. On the Clock tower of the famous great bell of big Ben, named after General contractor Benjamin Noll, and four smaller bells striking the time on the parliamentary clock.
We can not say a few words about the throne. Designed by Pugin, it was partially modified Barry. The throne strikes a fantastic variety of details. Gothic forms and ornaments are perfectly fit to create a solemn environment in the Parliament. Work on the design of the throne, manufacture of furniture and fixtures contributed to the revival of crafts and to the emergence of new techniques.
The first meeting of the chamber of peers was held in a newly built building in 1847, and in 1862 was followed by the consecration of the building of the Parliament. But Charles Barry were already gone – he died in Clapham 12 may 1860. For the construction of the houses of Parliament Barry received the title of Esquire.
Assistant in the construction of the Parliament building was his son Edward Middleton, who was born in 1830. It was he who completed the construction of the building. Edward, like his father, has achieved great success – he became Professor of architecture in the Royal Academy. Its main work – Coventgarden theatre, Opera house on the island of Malta, a concert hall in Halifax.