Gothic cathedrals of medieval Europe
Gothic cathedrals are not religious buildings of the ancient Goths, but structures of Gothic architecture. Just as vandalism has nothing to do with vandals, Gothic architecture has nothing to do with the Goths. It is an architectural style that developed in France from Romanticism in the 12th century and was known simply as the” French style”. Gothic architecture spread throughout Western Europe and continued to develop into the 16th century before being absorbed into Renaissance art. Only then it was called “Gothic”.
The Gothic style emphasizes verticality and light. This appearance was achieved through the development of certain architectural features such as the articulated columns, ribbed vaults and flying buttresses. Although architecture is used in many castles, palaces and city halls, it is the magnificent cathedrals of Europe that really show the beauty of Gothic architecture. Below are the top 10. Gothic cathedrals of Europe.
- St. Stephen’s Cathedral
St. Stephen’s Cathedral is located in the heart of Vienna. He survived many wars and today is a symbol of the freedom of the city. The Gothic cathedral stands on the ruins of two earlier churches and was largely initiated in the 14th century by Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria. Its most famous feature, the diamond-patterned tiled roof, was added only in 1952.
- Burgos Cathedral
Burgos Cathedral is a medieval cathedral in Burgos dedicated to the Virgin Mary. It is famous for its size and unique Gothic architecture. The construction of the Burgos Cathedral began in 1221. After a long break of almost two centuries, it was completed in 1567. in 1919, the cathedral became the burial place of Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar and his wife Doña Jimena.
- Reims Cathedral
The Cathedral of Reims was the church in which numerous French monarchs were officially crowned. It was built on the site of the basilica where Clovis of Saint Remi, Bishop of Reims, was baptized in 496. The cathedral was completed by the end of the 13th century.
- Milan Cathedral
An exceptionally large and elaborate Gothic cathedral on the main square of Milan, the Duomo di Milano is one of the most famous buildings in Europe. It is one of the largest Gothic cathedrals in the world. Construction began in 1386 under Archbishop Antonio da Saluzzo in the late Gothic French Italian style. It took five centuries to complete the famous cathedral.
- Seville Cathedral
Built on the site of a large Almohad mosque, Seville’s medieval cathedral was built to demonstrate the power and wealth of the city after the Reconquista. At the time of its completion in the 16th century, it supplanted the Hagia Sophia as the largest cathedral in the world. It is still the largest Gothic cathedral and the third largest church in the world. The builders used some columns and elements from the mosque, most famously the Giralda, a minaret that was converted into a bell tower.
- York Minster
In addition to Cologne Cathedral in Germany, the York Minster dominates the skyline of the ancient city of York as one of the two largest Gothic cathedrals in Northern Europe. York Minster covers all the major stages of Gothic architectural development in England. The present building was begun around 1230 and completed in 1472. The “Great East Window” inside the cathedral is the largest area of medieval stained glass in the world.
- Notre Dame de Paris
Notre Dame de Paris is a beautiful Catholic cathedral in the fourth arrondissement of Paris. Begun in 1163, it was completed around 1345. One of the most famous French Gothic cathedrals, Notre Dame is a great example of French Gothic architecture, sculpture and stained glass. During the French Revolution in the 1790s, many of her sculptures and treasures were damaged or destroyed. Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned emperor on December 2, 1804.
- Cologne Cathedral
Cologne Cathedral is the largest Gothic cathedral in Europe. It has been Europe’s most famous landmark for centuries. Once the tallest building in the world, it still has the largest facade. The famous cathedral stands on the site of a 4th-century Roman temple, followed by a church commissioned by Maternus, the first Christian bishop of Cologne. The construction of the present Gothic church began in 1248 and took, with interruptions, more than 600 years to be completed. Cologne Cathedral is dedicated to Saints Peter and Mary and is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Cologne.
- Santa Maria del Fiore
Begun in 1296 in Gothic style and completed in 1436, the Basilica of Santa Maria del Fiore is a beautiful cathedral in Florence and the symbol of the city. The exterior of the basilica is bordered with polychrome marble slabs of various shades of green and pink. The Basilica is one of the largest churches in Italy. Until the modern era, the dome was the largest in the world. It remains the largest brick dome ever built.
- Chartres Cathedral
Chartres Cathedral is located in Chartres, a city near Paris. The cathedral seems a little out of place in the small town. Because with its impressive size, it is not only one of the most beautiful examples of the French High Gothic style, it is also almost perfectly preserved. The majority of the original stained glass windows remain intact, while the architecture has suffered only minor alterations since the early 13th century.